Standing Rock: The Environmental and Social Justice Consequences of Fracking and the Dakota Access Pipeline

“You can live without money. You can live without oil. But you can’t live without water.”

 – Standing Rock Youth [1] 

In May of 2016, a multi-billion dollar corporation, Energy Transfer Partners, began construction on the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) project, despite long standing opposition from the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North and South Dakota. The DAPL, also known as the Bakken Oil Pipeline, is designed to extend 1,168 miles across North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Illinois, crossing through communities, farms, tribal lands, sensitive natural areas and wildlife habitat. It is intended to carry crude oil from the Bakken oil fields in North Dakota to Illinois where it will link with another pipeline that will transport the oil to terminals and refineries along the Gulf of Mexico. [2] 

If construction is completed, the pipeline is expected to carry approximately 500,000 barrels of crude oil daily from North Dakota to Illinois, crossing underneath Lake Oahe and the Missouri River a half-mile upstream from the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe’s reservation.  [3] The Missouri River is the main source of drinking and irrigation water for the 8,200 residents of the Standing Rock reservation.  The pipeline would pump an estimated 17,000 gallons of oil per minute underneath this water source, which would be devastated by a spill or leak. [4] This project poses serious environmental threats and will disturb burial grounds and sacred sites on the Tribe’s ancestral Treaty lands. [5] On July 26, 2016 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers gave its approval to run the DAPL underneath Lake Oahe, in violation of federal law. One day later, on July 27th, the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe filed a complaint in federal courtseeking an injunction to halt construction. [6] The Tribe’s legal action has been followed by a rapidly growing movement of peaceful support.  A timeline and collection of articles chronicling events is available here.

 

 

 

Standing Rock: The Environmental and Social Justice Consequences of Fracking and the Dakota Access Pipeline

A Sacred Movement For the Future

“We have seen the power of tribes coming together in unity and prayer and we will continue to pray for the protection of water, mother earth and her creation, as well as all past and future generations. ” Standing Rock Sioux Chairman Dave Archambault, II

There are now thousands of people camped out at Standing Rock, including international supporters and representatives from hundreds of Indigenous tribes across the North American continent.  These water protectors are engaging in daily peaceful, prayerful, non-violent actions to stop construction.  Prayer, diverse Indigenous spiritual practices, and a duty to protect sacred sites and natural resources are central to this movement. In return, their efforts are being met with force and violence at the hands of private security and law enforcement entities guarding the pipeline.  [7]  In one incident on September 3rd, DAPL construction workers plowed through a piece of Tribal land, destroying sacred sites and burial grounds. [8] Water protectors who attempted to stop the bulldozers were confronted by private security forces who deployed pepper spray and attack dogs. Following news reports of the incident, the  journalist who covered the story and filmed the attacks was charged with trespassing and rioting by North Dakota authorities. [9]

The repression effort is becoming increasingly more militarized and there have been hundreds arrests, injuries, dog attacks, pepper spray, strip searches, and other violations of civil rights. On October 23rd the Morton County Sheriff’s office announced plans to escalate their response by calling in additional police forces from six states to confront the Standing Rock water protectors. [10] 

 

“To many people, the military tactics being used in North Dakota are reminiscent of the tactics used against protesters during the civil rights movement some 50 years ago. And I believe that there are similarities there. But to us, there is an additional collective memory that comes to mind. This country has a long and sad history of using military force against indigenous people—including the Sioux Nation.” 

– Standing Rock Sioux Chairman Dave Archambault, II

On October 27th, as this article was being written, several hundred officers in riot gear surrounded and moved in on one of the Standing Rock camps, firing rubber bullets, bean bags, tasers, and pepper spray, with support from helicopters, military Humvees, ATV’s, and a sound canon. Over 100 people were arrested. Several live streamed videos were recorded and are available here: Video 1, Video 2

 

The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is now calling upon the federal Department of Justice to intervene on behalf of their rights to freedom of speech and religion, and to investigate civil rights violations by state and local law enforcement agencies. [11] 

 

Standing Rock: The Environmental and Social Justice Consequences of Fracking and the Dakota Access Pipeline

Who is Behind the Pipeline?

“This is another chapter in the long history of the federal government granting the construction of potentially hazardous projects near or through tribal lands, waters, and cultural places without including the tribe.” Standing Rock Sioux Chairman Dave Archambault, II

The business entity responsible for the DAPL — Energy Transfer Partners,  — is owned by Energy Transfer Equity (ETE), a multi-billion dollar enterprise that has enjoyed skyrocketing profits this year as natural gas prices rose. During one week in April, the CEO of ETE, Kelcy Warren, personally gained $430 million from his 18% stake in the company when share prices rose 32%, bringing his personal net worth to $2.4 billion dollars.   [12] 

 

The proposed pipeline route will cut through 50 counties in 4 states. As the general site plan illustrates, this massive pipeline is passing through a corridor of numerous cities, towns, and reservations. The outcome of the Standing Rock resistance will have a great impact not only on Native American citizens and the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, but on all communities located along the 1,168 mile corridor. [13]

 

Standing Rock: The Environmental and Social Justice Consequences of Fracking and the Dakota Access Pipeline

Fracking and North Dakota’s Oil and Gas Boom

The DAPL is a direct result of advances in hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, practices which have created a dramatic increase in oil and gas production in North Dakota. [14] Beginning in 2006, fracking led to a ten-fold production in oil production in North Dakota, making it the second highest oil producing state in the nation, second only to Texas.It is this excessive production that created the industry’s demand for pipelines. [15]

Oil and wastewater spills from pipeline leaks are now tragically common in North Dakota. More than 18 million gallons of oil and toxic wastewater were spilled from 2006-2014, steadily increasing in the years after the boom. [16] 

Fracking operations foul the water supplies in a number of ways. The water table can be irreparably damaged by the hydro-fracking itself, which is a separate issue from contamination from pipeline leaks in that. Likewise, the groundwater can be tainted very quickly and profoundly by the disposal of fracking wastewater.

 

The fracking process involves drilling wells thousands of feet deep into the earth, past aquifers, to reach rock formations, and forcing them to release oil and gas. Once the well is drilled and encased, three to five million gallons of water mixed with chemicals and sand are pumped at extreme pressure into the well, which shatters the rock, creating multiple fractures. The sand and chemicals seep into the cracks and hold them open to release oil and gas which is pumped to the surface. This process poses a high risk of ground water contamination. Once the fracking injection fluids enter a natural aquifer or water course, the damage is extremely difficult to reverse. [17] 

As part of the fracking process, some of the fracking injection fluid returns to the surface of the earth, mixing with groundwater to produce a toxic wastewater by-product.  Drilling companies then dispose of this contaminated wastewater by injecting it back into the earth via wastewater disposal wells.  This procedure has caused earthquakes in fracking regions all across the country.

Earlier this year, in Oklahoma, state regulators shut down more than 30 fracking wastewater disposal  wells following a 5.6 magnum earthquake that was felt across 5 states. [18]

 

 

Standing Rock: The Environmental and Social Justice Consequences of Fracking and the Dakota Access Pipeline

GreenMedInfo Research and Declaration of Support

Fracking’s toxic wastewater by-product also causes very serious health problems, which can continue on for many generations. GreenMedInfo has published two reports on studies of fracking wastewater which has been found to release radioactive waste into the environment, which has been proven to be cancer-causing.  Abstracts for 17 studies of the health and environmental consequences of fracking can be found here.

Fracking Creates Massive Radioactive Waste Problem

Fracking Wastewater Is Cancer-Causing, New Study Confirms

GMI Research Dashboard: Anti-Therapeutic Action: Fracking

The resistance at Standing Rock is part of a global call to challenge the oil and gas industry and the damages it has inflicted upon our planet.  Wars are waged for control over oil resources. Nations have seen vast swaths of countryside irreparably laid to waste by oil drilling rigs.  Bodies of water across the world have been sullied by tar balls and oil spills in the water. Unsuspecting communities have seen their water supplies irreversibly contaminated by hydro-fracking the land.  

GreenMedInfo stands with these water protectors as they fight for the rights of us all.

 

A Special Report on Standing Rock: The Environmental and Social Justice Consequences of Fracking and the Dakota Access Pipeline

A Special Report on Standing Rock: The Environmental and Social Justice Consequences of Fracking and the Dakota Access Pipeline

 Resources for News and Updates

While most major news outlets have failed to adequately report these developments, there are other good sources for up-to-date information.  We urge our readers to stay informed and bear witness with the following resources:

Indian Country Today Media Network

http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/

Democracy Now!

http://www.democracynow.org/topics/dakota_access

Sacred Stone Camp 

http://sacredstonecamp.org/

Facebook Page

https://www.facebook.com/CampOfTheSacredStone/about/

Standing Rock Youth – Rezpect Our Water!

http://rezpectourwater.com/

Standing Rock Dakota Access Pipeline Opposition (Facebook Page)

https://www.facebook.com/StandingRockDakotaAccessPipelineOpposition/

StandingRock.org

http://standingrock.org/news/

Make a Donation

Sacred Stone Camp – Supply List

http://sacredstonecamp.org/supply-list/

Sacred Stone Camp – Amazon Wish List

https://www.amazon.com/registry/wishlist/196PVIWRDX1M4

Standing Rock Medic and Healer Council – Supply List

https://medichealercouncil.com/donate/

Standing Rock Sioux Tribe – Dakota Access Pipeline Donation Fund

http://standingrock.org/

Legal Defense Fund for Sacred Stone Spirit Camp

https://fundrazr.com/campaigns/d19fAf

Red Warrior Camp Legal Fund

https://www.generosity.com/fundraising/red-warrior-camp-legal-fund-nodapl

Call to Action

10 Ways You Can Help Support the Standing Rock Sioux Fight the Dakota Access Pipeline

http://www.manataka.org/page2985.html

Call For Support – Stand With Standing Rock

http://standingrock.org/news/call-for-support–stand-with-standing-rock/

Contact the Banking Institutions Who Are Funding the Dakota Access Pipeline

http://www.yesmagazine.org/people-power/standing-rock-is-a-two-front-war-big-oil-and-big-banks-but-maybe-thats-good-news-20160922

Wells Fargo

CEO John Stumpf
John.G.Stumpf@wellsfargo.com
BoardCommunications@wellsfargo.com
866-249- 3302

Corporate Office:
Wells Fargo
420 Montgomery Street
San Francisco, CA 94104

BNP Paribas

CEO Jean-Laurent Bonnafe
jean-laurent.bonnafe@bnpparibas.com

Corporate Office:
3 rue d’Antin
75002 Paris, France
00-33-157-082-200

U.S. Office:
787 Seventh Avenue – The Equitable Tower
New York, NY 10019
212-841-3000

SunTrust

CEO William H. Rodgers Jr.

Corporate Office:
303 Peachtree Street NE
Atlanta, GA 30308
800-786-8787

Chief Communications Officer:
Sue Mallino
404-813-0463
sue.mallino@suntrust.com

The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ

Chairman Nobuyuki Hirano

CEO and President Takashi Oyamada

Corporate Office:
2-7-1, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo, Japan
81-3-3240-8111

U.S. Office:
1251 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020-1104
212-782-4000

Mizuho Bank

President and CEO Nobuhide Hayashi

Corporate Office:
Otemachi Tower
1-5-5, Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 100-8176, Japan
81-3-3214-1111

U.S. Office:
1251 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020
212-282-3000

Citibank (CitiGroup)

CEO Michael Corbat
michael.corbat@citi.com
212-793-1201

Corporate Office:
388 Greenwich Street
New York, NY 10013
Phone: 800-285-3000 and 212-793-0710

TD Securities

Chairman, CEO, and President Bob Dorrance

Corporate Office:
P.O. Box 1, TD Bank Tower
66 Wellington Street W
Toronto, Ontario
M5K 1A2

Investment Banking: 416-307-8500
Equity Research: 416-307-9360
Trading Floor Enquiries: 416-944-6978

U.S. Office:
31 West 52nd Street
New York, NY 10019-6101
212-827-7000

Credit Agricole

CEO Jean-Paul Chifflet

Office:
12, Place des Etats-Unis
Montrouge, France 92545
33-1-43-23-52-02

U.S. Office:
1301 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, NY 10019
infoamericas@ca-cib.com

Intesa SanPaolo

CEO Carlo Messina

Corporate Office:
Piazza San Carlo, 156
10121 Torino, Italy
39-011-555-1

Corporate Social Responsibility Unit:
39-02-8796-3435
CSR@intesasanpaolo.com
sostenibilita.ambientale@intes asanpaolo.com

ING Bank

CEO and Executive Board Chairman Ralph A.J.G Hamers

Wholesale Banking, Operations & IT, Sustainability, Corporate Governance:
Carolien van der Giessen
carolien.van.der.giessen@ing.c om
31-20-576-63-86

Head of Media Relations:
Raymond Vermuelen
raymond.vermeulen@ing.com
31-20-576-63-69

Corporate Office:
Amsterdamse Poort
Bijlmerplein 888
1102 MG Amsterdam
The Netherlands
31-20-5639111

Mailing Address:
ING Bank N.V.
P.O. Box 1800
1000 BV Amsterdam
The Netherlands

U.S. Office:
ING Financial Holdings LLC
1325 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10019
646-424-6000

Natixis

CEO Pierre Servant

Corporate Office:
Natixis Global Asset Management, S.A.
21 quai d’Austerlitz
75634 Paris Cedex 13, France
33-1-78-40-90-00

U.S. Office:
Natixis Global Asset Management, L.P.
399 Boylston Street
Boston, MA
617-449-2100 

BayernLB

CEO Johannes-Jorg Riegler

Head of Communications:
Matthias Priwitzer
Matthias.Priwitzer@bayernlb.de
49-89-2171-21255

Corporate Office:
Brienner Straße 18
80333 Munich
49-89-2171-27176

U.S. Office:
560 Lexington Avenue
New York City, NY 10022
212-310-9800

BBVA Securities

CEO Carlos Torres Villa

Executive Chairman Francisco Gonzalez Rodriguez

Corporate Office:
Calle Azul, 4
28050 Madrid, Spain

34-902-22-44-66

DNB First Bank

CEO and President William J. Hieb
610-269-1040

Main Branch:
4 Brandywine Avenue
Downingtown, PA 19335
484-691-3621

ICBC London

CEO and Managing Director Jin Chen

Corporate Office:
20 Gresham Street
London EC2V 7JE, United Kingdom
44-203-145-5000

U.S. Office:
520 Madison Avenue 28th Floor
New York, NY 10022
212-407-5000

SMBC Nikko Securities

President and CEO Yoshihiko Shimizu

Corporate Office:
3-1, Marunouchi 3-chome, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 100-8325, Japan
81-3-5644-3111

Societe General

CEO Frederic Oudea
https://www.linkedin.com/in/fr edericoudea

Chiarman of the Board Lorenzo Bini Smaghi
lorenzo.binismaghi@snam.it

Corporate Office:
29 boulevard Haussmann 75009
Paris, France
2.0@societegenerale
33-1-42-14-20-00

U.S. Office:
245 Park Avenue
New York City, NY 10167
212-278-6000

Resources

[1] http://rezpectourwater.com/

[2] http://standingrock.org/data/upfiles/media/2274_001.pdf

[3] https://insideclimatenews.org/news/30082016/dakota-access-pipeline-standing-rock-sioux-army-corps-engineers-approval-environment

[4] https://insideclimatenews.org/news/08092016/standing-rock-sioux-tribe-energy-transfer-dakota-access-pipeline-oil-environmental-justice

[5] http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2016/08/15/dakota-access-pipeline-standoff-mni-wiconi-water-life-165470

[6] http://standingrock.org/data/upfiles/media/3154%201%20Complaint%20(1).pdf

[7] https://thinkprogress.org/indigenous-spiritual-movement-8f873348a2f5#.7bnxmvppp

[8] http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2016/09/04/what-dakota-access-destroyed-standing-rock-former-historic-preservation-officer-explains

[9] http://www.democracynow.org/2016/9/4/dakota_access_pipeline_company_attacks_native

[10] http://www.ecowatch.com/dakota-access-pipeline-emergency-order-2063073522.html

[11] http://mostwww.alternet.org/environment/indigenous-protesters-call-feds-intervene-against-military-style-crackdown-standing-rock

[12] http://www.forbes.com/sites/jenniferwang/2016/04/16/who-got-rich-this-week-pipeline-billionaires-benefit-big-from-rebounding-energy-prices/#1838ce5374b0

[13] http://www.energytransfer.com/documents/DAPL_States_Counties.pdf

[14] http://www.npr.org/2014/01/30/265396179/much-of-north-dakota-s-natural-gas-is-going-up-in-flames

[15] http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2013/12/16/the-bakken-oil-boom-in-10-charts.aspx

[16] http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/11/23/us/north-dakota-oil-boom-downside.html

[17] https://insideclimatenews.org/news/05062015/fracking-has-contaminated-drinking-water-epa-now-concludes

[18] http://www.cnn.com/2016/09/03/us/oklahoma-earthquake/index.html?iid=EL

 

 

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